Genomic plasticity and the diversity of polyploid plants

Genomic plasticity and the diversity of polyploid plants


AR Leitch, IJ Leitch

Science (2008/4/25) 320(5875):481-483

Polyploidy, a change whereby the entire chromosome set is multiplied, arises through mitotic or meiotic misdivisions and frequently involves unreduced gametes and interspecific hybridization. The success of newly formed angiosperm polyploids is partly attributable to their highly plastic genome structure, as manifested by tolerance to changing chromosome numbers (aneuploidy and polyploidy), genome size,(retro) transposable element mobility, insertions, deletions, and epigenome restructuring. The ability to …


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The frequency of rDNA variants within individuals provides evidence of population history and gene flow across a grasshopper hybrid zone

The frequency of rDNA variants within individuals provides evidence of population history and gene flow across a grasshopper hybrid zone


Irene Keller, Paris Veltsos, Richard A Nichols

Evolution (2008/4/1) 62(4):833-844

In the grasshopper Podisma pedestris, units of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) multigene family are not identical, but comprise multiple genetic variants. We surveyed this variation using a novel pyrosequencing approach. The history of the study populations is well characterized as the pattern of colonization can be inferred from the distribution of two chromosomal races that invaded from different directions after the last glacial maximum and finally met to form a hybrid zone. This knowledge of the populations’ ancestry allows us to draw inferences …


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Dates from the molecular clock: how wrong can we be?

Dates from the molecular clock: how wrong can we be?


Mario JF Pulquerio, Richard A Nichols

Trends in Ecology & Evolution (2007/4/30) 22(4):180-184

Large discrepancies have been found in dates of evolutionary events obtained using the
molecular clock. Twofold differences have been reported between the dates estimated from
molecular data and those from the fossil record; furthermore, different molecular methods
can give dates that differ 20-fold. New software attempts to incorporate appropriate
allowances for this uncertainty into the calculation of the accuracy of date estimates. Here,
we propose that these innovations represent welcome progress towards obtaining reliable


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DOI: dois[8]

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Mate fidelity and intra-lineage polygyny in greater horseshoe bats

Mate fidelity and intra-lineage polygyny in greater horseshoe bats


Stephen J Rossiter, Roger D Ransome, Christopher G Faulkes, Steven C Le Comber, Gareth Jones

Nature (2005/9/15) 437(7057):408-411

Mating strategies that lead to increased kinship within socially cooperative groups may offer inclusive fitness benefits to individuals 1, 2, 3, but can also result in higher levels of inbreeding 4, 5, 6. Here we show in a sexually segregated bat species that females avoid this conflict through two mating behaviours. First, most females revisit and breed with specific, individual males across years, so that their single offspring born in different years are full siblings. Second, relatives in the maternal line, including mothers and daughters, …


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DOI: 10.1038/nature03965

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Harmonic-hopping in Wallacea’s bats

Harmonic-hopping in Wallacea’s bats


Tigga Kingston, Stephen J Rossiter

Nature ( 2004/6/10 ) 429 ( 6992 ): 654-657

Evolutionary divergence between species is facilitated by ecological shifts, and divergence
is particularly rapid when such shifts also promote assortative mating 1, 2, 3. Horseshoe bats
are a diverse Old World family (Rhinolophidae) that have undergone a rapid radiation in the
past 5 million years 4. These insectivorous bats use a predominantly pure-tone echolocation
call matched to an auditory fovea (an over-representation of the pure-tone frequency in the
cochlea and inferior colliculus 5, 6) to detect the minute changes in echo amplitude and


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Application of DNA microarrays to study the evolutionary genomics of Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

Application of DNA microarrays to study the evolutionary genomics of Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis


Stewart J Hinchliffe, Karen E Isherwood, Richard A Stabler, Michael B Prentice, Alexander Rakin, Richard A Nichols, Petra CF Oyston, Jason Hinds, Richard W Titball, Brendan W Wren

Genome research (2003/9/1) 13(9):2018-2029

Abstract Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, diverged from Yersinia
pseudotuberculosis, an enteric pathogen, an estimated 1500�20,000 years ago. Genetic
characterization of these closely related organisms represents a useful model to study the
rapid emergence of bacterial pathogens that threaten mankind. To this end, we undertook
genome-wide DNA microarray analysis of 22 strains of Y. pestis and 10 strains of Y.
pseudotuberculosis of diverse origin. Eleven Y. pestis DNA loci were deemed absent or


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DOI: dois[7]

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Y genetic data support the Neolithic demic diffusion model

Y genetic data support the Neolithic demic diffusion model


Loun�s Chikhi, Richard A Nichols, Guido Barbujani, Mark A Beaumont

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2002/8/20) 99(17):11008

Abstract There still is no general agreement on the origins of the European gene pool, even
though Europe has been more thoroughly investigated than any other continent. In
particular, there is continuing controversy about the relative contributions of European
Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers and of migrant Near Eastern Neolithic farmers, who brought
agriculture to Europe. Here, we apply a statistical framework that we have developed to
obtain direct estimates of the contribution of these two groups at the time they met. We


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DOI: dois[5]

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Y genetic data support the Neolithic demic diffusion model

Y genetic data support the Neolithic demic diffusion model


Loun�s Chikhi, Richard A Nichols, Guido Barbujani, Mark A Beaumont

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2002/8/20) 99(17):11008

There still is no general agreement on the origins of the European gene pool, even though Europe has been more thoroughly investigated than any other continent. In particular, there is continuing controversy about the relative contributions of European Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers and of migrant Near Eastern Neolithic farmers, who brought agriculture to Europe. Here, we apply a statistical framework that we have developed to obtain direct estimates of the contribution of these two groups at the time they met. We …


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Using nested clade analysis to assess the history of colonization and the persistence of populations of an Iberian lizard

Using nested clade analysis to assess the history of colonization and the persistence of populations of an Iberian lizard


Oct�vio S Paulo, William C Jordan, Michael W Bruford, Richard A Nichols

Molecular Ecology (2002/4/1) 11(4):809-819

The distribution of the lizard Lacerta schreiberi is likely to have been severely affected by the
climatic cycles that have influenced the Iberian Peninsula. Information about the species
ecology and Iberian physiogeography was used to generate specific hypotheses about
episodes of colonization and subsequent population persistence. These hypotheses
generated predictions about the distribution of genetic variation, which were tested using
nested clade analysis (NCA) supplemented by analysis of molecular variance (amova).


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DOI: dois[18]

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