Rapid chromosome evolution in recently formed polyploids in Tragopogon (Asteraceae)

Rapid chromosome evolution in recently formed polyploids in Tragopogon (Asteraceae)


K Yoong Lim, Douglas E Soltis, Pamela S Soltis, Jennifer Tate, Roman Matyasek, Hana Srubarova, Ales Kovarik, J Chris Pires, Zhiyong Xiong, Andrew R Leitch

PLoS One (2008/10/9) 3(10):e3353

Background Polyploidy, frequently termed ‘whole genome duplication’, is a major force in the evolution of many eukaryotes. Indeed, most angiosperm species have undergone at least one round of polyploidy in their evolutionary history. Despite enormous progress in our understanding of many aspects of polyploidy, we essentially have no information about the role of chromosome divergence in the establishment of young polyploid populations. Here we investigate synthetic lines and natural populations of two recently and recurrently …


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The hearing gene Prestin reunites echolocating bats

The hearing gene Prestin reunites echolocating bats


Gang Li, Jinhong Wang, Stephen J Rossiter, Gareth Jones, James A Cotton, Shuyi Zhang

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2008/9/16) 105(37):13959

Abstract The remarkable high-frequency sensitivity and selectivity of the mammalian auditory system has been attributed to the evolution of mechanical amplification, in which sound waves are amplified by outer hair cells in the cochlea. This process is driven by the recently discovered protein prestin, encoded by the gene Prestin. Echolocating bats use ultrasound for orientation and hunting and possess the highest frequency hearing of all mammals. To test for the involvement of Prestin in the evolution of bat echolocation, we …


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Correlating viral phenotypes with phylogeny: accounting for phylogenetic uncertainty

Correlating viral phenotypes with phylogeny: accounting for phylogenetic uncertainty


Joe Parker, Andrew Rambaut, Oliver G Pybus

Infection, Genetics and Evolution (2008/5/31) 8(3):239-246

Many recent studies have sought to quantify the degree to which viral phenotypic characters (such as epidemiological risk group, geographic location, cell tropism, drug resistance state, etc.) are correlated with shared ancestry, as represented by a viral phylogenetic tree. Here, we present a new Bayesian Markov-Chain Monte Carlo approach to the investigation of such phylogeny-trait correlations. This method accounts for uncertainty arising from phylogenetic error and provides a statistical significance test of the null hypothesis that
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Genomic plasticity and the diversity of polyploid plants

Genomic plasticity and the diversity of polyploid plants


AR Leitch, IJ Leitch

Science (2008/4/25) 320(5875):481-483

Polyploidy, a change whereby the entire chromosome set is multiplied, arises through mitotic or meiotic misdivisions and frequently involves unreduced gametes and interspecific hybridization. The success of newly formed angiosperm polyploids is partly attributable to their highly plastic genome structure, as manifested by tolerance to changing chromosome numbers (aneuploidy and polyploidy), genome size,(retro) transposable element mobility, insertions, deletions, and epigenome restructuring. The ability to …


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The frequency of rDNA variants within individuals provides evidence of population history and gene flow across a grasshopper hybrid zone

The frequency of rDNA variants within individuals provides evidence of population history and gene flow across a grasshopper hybrid zone


Irene Keller, Paris Veltsos, Richard A Nichols

Evolution (2008/4/1) 62(4):833-844

In the grasshopper Podisma pedestris, units of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) multigene family are not identical, but comprise multiple genetic variants. We surveyed this variation using a novel pyrosequencing approach. The history of the study populations is well characterized as the pattern of colonization can be inferred from the distribution of two chromosomal races that invaded from different directions after the last glacial maximum and finally met to form a hybrid zone. This knowledge of the populations’ ancestry allows us to draw inferences …


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Dates from the molecular clock: how wrong can we be?

Dates from the molecular clock: how wrong can we be?


Mario JF Pulquerio, Richard A Nichols

Trends in Ecology & Evolution (2007/4/30) 22(4):180-184

Large discrepancies have been found in dates of evolutionary events obtained using the
molecular clock. Twofold differences have been reported between the dates estimated from
molecular data and those from the fossil record; furthermore, different molecular methods
can give dates that differ 20-fold. New software attempts to incorporate appropriate
allowances for this uncertainty into the calculation of the accuracy of date estimates. Here,
we propose that these innovations represent welcome progress towards obtaining reliable


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DOI: dois[8]

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Mate fidelity and intra-lineage polygyny in greater horseshoe bats

Mate fidelity and intra-lineage polygyny in greater horseshoe bats


Stephen J Rossiter, Roger D Ransome, Christopher G Faulkes, Steven C Le Comber, Gareth Jones

Nature (2005/9/15) 437(7057):408-411

Mating strategies that lead to increased kinship within socially cooperative groups may offer inclusive fitness benefits to individuals 1, 2, 3, but can also result in higher levels of inbreeding 4, 5, 6. Here we show in a sexually segregated bat species that females avoid this conflict through two mating behaviours. First, most females revisit and breed with specific, individual males across years, so that their single offspring born in different years are full siblings. Second, relatives in the maternal line, including mothers and daughters, …


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DOI: 10.1038/nature03965

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Harmonic-hopping in Wallacea’s bats

Harmonic-hopping in Wallacea’s bats


Tigga Kingston, Stephen J Rossiter

Nature ( 2004/6/10 ) 429 ( 6992 ): 654-657

Evolutionary divergence between species is facilitated by ecological shifts, and divergence
is particularly rapid when such shifts also promote assortative mating 1, 2, 3. Horseshoe bats
are a diverse Old World family (Rhinolophidae) that have undergone a rapid radiation in the
past 5 million years 4. These insectivorous bats use a predominantly pure-tone echolocation
call matched to an auditory fovea (an over-representation of the pure-tone frequency in the
cochlea and inferior colliculus 5, 6) to detect the minute changes in echo amplitude and


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Application of DNA microarrays to study the evolutionary genomics of Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

Application of DNA microarrays to study the evolutionary genomics of Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis


Stewart J Hinchliffe, Karen E Isherwood, Richard A Stabler, Michael B Prentice, Alexander Rakin, Richard A Nichols, Petra CF Oyston, Jason Hinds, Richard W Titball, Brendan W Wren

Genome research (2003/9/1) 13(9):2018-2029

Abstract Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, diverged from Yersinia
pseudotuberculosis, an enteric pathogen, an estimated 1500�20,000 years ago. Genetic
characterization of these closely related organisms represents a useful model to study the
rapid emergence of bacterial pathogens that threaten mankind. To this end, we undertook
genome-wide DNA microarray analysis of 22 strains of Y. pestis and 10 strains of Y.
pseudotuberculosis of diverse origin. Eleven Y. pestis DNA loci were deemed absent or


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DOI: dois[7]

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